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Immune surveillance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC)



Oluwadayo O Oluwadara1,4, Andre Barkhordarian1,4, Luca Giacomelli2,4, Xenia Brant1,3,4, Francesco Chiappelli1,4*



1Oral Biology & Medicine, School of Dentistry, UCLA; 2Istituto di Stomatologia, Lido di Camaiore, Italy; 3CEO IPSEMG, School of Dentistry, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 4Evidence-Based Decisions Practice-Based Research Network ( and Div Biology & Medicine, CHS 63-090, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668


Email; *Corresponding author


Article Type




Received October 10, 2011; Accepted October 11, 2011; Published October 31, 2011



In the U.S., nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC) kills >7,600 each year. Deaths are predominantly among adult men, and in most cases, early detection and treatment can save lives. Despite the annual spending of approximately 3.2 billion dollars on head and neck cancer research, NpC remains a neglected disease since its fatality rates are among the lowest nation wide. The relative survival rates from NpC have not improved in the U.S. in the last 20 years. Infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an important co-factor in the etiology of NpC. In other regions of the word (e.g., South-East Asia, Latin America), EBV infection and NpC-related prevalence and mortality are substantially higher and more alarming. Epidemiological data indicate high prevalence of EBV infection and increased risk for NpC among Central and South American and Asian immigrants in the U.S., and also predict a sharp increase in NpC incidence in the next decade. To face this emerging threat, it is important to develop and validate novel modes of detection and intervention for NpC. To this end, we characterized the proteomic signature of NpC, and of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of the CD8+, activated (CD38+, mTOR+) and regulatory immune cell (FoxP3+) phenotype. Paraffinized biopsies were processed, and tissue microarrays constructed and tested by immunohistochemistry and tri-immunohistofluorescence for a battery of signaling markers, including AKT and PI3K, in conjunction with EBV status and ANKRD11, an NpC susceptibility biomarker. Microphotographs, analyzed and quantified by confocal microscopy and fractal analysis, suggest new avenues for immunotherapies of NpC.



Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Epstein Barr Virus, Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes, tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry, immunohistofluorescence, fractal analysis, proteomic signature, signaling pathways, AKT, Pi3K, mTOR, CD8+, CD38+, FoxP3, ANKRD11



Oluwadara et al. Bioinformation 7(5): 271-275 (2011)

Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.