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Title

CoViD-19 Susceptibility

 

Authors

Francesco Chiappelli

 

Affiliation

Francesco Chiappelli, Ph.D., Dr. Endo (h.c), Professor Emeritus, UCLA, Center for the Health Sciences; CSUN, Department of the Health Sciences

 

Email

E-mail: Chiappelli.research@gmail.com; *Corresponding author

 

Article Type

Editorial

 

Date

Received May 29, 2020; Accepted May 31, 2020; Published July 31, 2020

 

Abstract

There have been over five million cases of infection with the second Corona virus to induce SARS (SARS-CoV2) and close to half a million deaths worldwide since the first report of Corona Virus Disease in late December 2019 (CoViD-19). Over two million CoViD-19 patients have recovered. The factors and variables that lead certain CoViD-19 patients to survive this otherwise aggressive and lethal viral infection are intensely researched, as is the development of productive anti-virals and of safe and effective vaccines. Several hypotheses invoke putative mutations of the ss-positive RNA SARS-CoV2 virus to states of stronger or weaker virulence and lethality. Other hypotheses propose that the patientís status of immunity, vitamin D level, Zinc deficiency or other physiological parameters determine how any given patient will effectively weather the viremia and the consequential multi-symptomatic CoViD-19. The initial cause - causa prima - underlying all the symptoms of CoViD-19 is infection of the host human cell by SARS-CoV2. The virus spike (S) protein finds its binding site, ACE2, widely distributed in all cells and tissues that potentially proffer CoViD-19 pathology. S consists of two subunits, S1 and S2, which are cleaved by the widely expressed transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) before the virus fuses to the plasma membrane and infects the cell. Current trends show that variant alleles resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2, and genetic variants of TMPRSS2, with putative distinct affinities for S clip, may determine a complex multi-factorial spectrum of SARS-CoV2 virulence across patients, and predict CoViD-19 susceptibility.

 

Keywords

COVID-19, susceptibility, immunity

 

Citation

Chiappelli, Bioinformation 16(7): 501-504 (2020)

 

Edited by

P Kangueane

 

ISSN

0973-2063

 

Publisher

Biomedical Informatics

 

License

This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.