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A descriptive analysis of PVL-positive multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospital-associated infections in Saudi Arabia



Waleed Mazi2,4, Fawaz Alshammari1, Jun Yu3, Md Jahoor Alam5, Mohd Saeed5 , Khalid Alshaghdali1 & Amir Saeed1*



1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail - Hail – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Email address: am.saeed@uoh.edu.sa;K.alshaghdali@uoh.edu.sa; 2Infection Prevention and Control Department, King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital-Taif, Saudi Arabia. E-mail address: wmazi@moh.gov.sa; 3Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom. E-mail address: jun.yu@strath.ac.uk; 4Karolinska Institute, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, SE- 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Hail, Hail– Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail address: mo.saeed@uoh.edu.sa;



Amir Saeed - E-mail address: am.saeed@uoh.edu.sa; *Corresponding author:


Article Type

Research Article



Submitted on June 17, 2020; Revision June 21, 2020; Accepted June 21, 2020; Published August 31, 2020



Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections impose a huge risk to public health in healthcare and community settings worldwide. Therefore, it is of interest to document data on the anti-biogramas and genotypes of isolates from Saudi Arabia. We assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility, determined spa (protein A gene) and analyzed multilocus MLST genotypes, and detected PVL gene in these isolates. We collected 28 clinical MRSA isolates, cultured and determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 17 antimicrobial agents using Vitek2 system (BioMerieux, USA) from 3 hospitals in Saudi Arabia during the year 2012. Polymorphic region of the spa and seven housekeeping genes were amplified and sequenced. BioNumerics v.5.1 (Applied Maths) was used for spa typing and MLST. Samples were screened for the presence of PVL and mecA genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis shows that all isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and vancomycin. The T4573/ST22 strains are found to be prevalent in the Saudi Arabia (N=6, 21%). We further noted that three isolates (t363/ST240 strain) were resistant to eight antimicrobial agents. Most of t4573/ST22 strains were PVL positive, resistant to ciprofloxacin and linked to HA-MRSA infections. We document data for the presence of emerging multi drug resistant S. aureus strains carrying the PVL gene circulating within hospitals. This highlights the urgent need for continuous active surveillance and implementation of prevention measures.



Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, hospital and community- associated MRSA infections.



Mazi et al. Bioinformation 16(8): 586-593 (2020) 


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.