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Genomic signatures of protease and reverse transcriptase genes from HIV-1 subtype C isolated from first-line ART patients in India



Sushanta Kumar Barik1, Keshar Kunja Mohanty1,*, Shripad A Patil1, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy2, Dharmendra Singh1, Luke Eilzabeth Hanna2 , Ramesh Karunaianantham2, Sathyamurthi Pattabiraman2, Tej Pal Singh3, Rekha Tandon3 & Srikanta Jena4



1ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, Uttar-Pradesh, India; 2ICMR-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chetpet, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India; 3Sarojini Naidu Medical College and Hospital, Agra, Uttar-Pradesh, India; 4Ravenshaw University, Odisha, Cuttack, India; *Corresponding author



Keshar Kunja Mohanty - Email ID: keshar63@yahoo.com, mohanty.kk@icmr.gov.in, Phone: +91 9412255180
Srikanta Jena - Email ID: jenasrikanta@yahoo.co.in

Sushanta Kumar Barik - Email ID: sushantakumarbarik82@gmail.com

Keshar Kunja Mohanty - Email ID: keshar63@yahoo.com

Shripad A Patil - Email ID: shripadapatil@yahoo.com

Dharmendra Singh - Email ID: singhd72@yahoo.co.in

Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Email ID: srikanthtripathy@gmail.com

Luke Eilzabeth Hanna, Email ID: hannatrc@yahoo.com.

Ramesh Karunaianantham, Email ID: ramesh.miruna@gmail.com

Sathyamurthi Pattabiraman, Email ID: sathya772003@yahoo.co.in

Tej Pal Singh, Email ID: drtejpal.singh@yahoo.com.

Rekha Tandon, Email ID: drrekhatandon.agra@gmail.com


Article Type

Research Article



Received January 1, 2022; Revised April 30, 2022; Accepted April 30, 2022, Published April 30, 2022



Genomic signatures of the protease and reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-1 from HIV infected North Indian patients who were under ART from 1 to ≤ 7 years were analyzed. The DNA from plasma samples of 9 patients and RNA from 57 patients were isolated and subjected to amplification for the protease and reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-1 subtype C. Then sequencing was carried out following the WHO dried blood spot protocol. The drug resistance mutation patterns were analyzed using the HIV Drug Resistance Database, Stanford University, USA. Lamivudine-associated drug-resistance mutations such as M184V/M184I, nevirapine-associated drug resistance mutations Y181C and H221Y, and efavirenz-associated drug resistance mutations M230I were observed in reverse transcriptase gene of archived DNA of two HIV-1 infected patients. No mutation was observed in the remaining 7 patients. Various computational tools and websites like viral epidemiological signature pattern analysis (VESPA), hyper mutation, SNAP version 2.1.1, and entropy were utilized for the analysis of the signature pattern of amino acids, hyper mutation, selection pressure, and Shannon entropy in the protease and reverse transcriptase gene sequences of the 9 archived DNA, 56 protease gene and 51 reverse transcriptase gene from the HIV-1 DNA amplified sequences of RNA. The HIV-1 Subtype-C (Gene bank accession number: AB023804) and first isolate HXB2 (Gene bank accession number: K03455.1) was taken as reference sequence. The signature amino acid sequences were identified in the protease and reverse transcriptase gene, no hyper mutation, highest entropy was marked in the amino acid positions and synonymous to non-synonymous nucleotide ratio was calculated in the protease and reverse transcriptase gene of 9 archived DNA sequences, 56 protease and 51 reverse transcriptase gene sequences of HIV-1 Subtype C isolates.



Archived DNA, Signature, Protease (PR), Reverse transcriptase (RT), HIV-1



Barik et al. Bioinformation 18(4): 371-380 (2022)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.