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Effect of rifampicin combination-regimens against multi-drug resistant strains in North India


Misbahuddin M Rafeeq1, Alaa Hamed Habib2, Ahmad Alzamami3, Norah A. Alturki4, Mutaib M. Mashraqi5, Youssef Saeed Alghamdi6, Saleh Alshamrani5, Afaf Awwadh Alharthi7 & Suhail Ahmad8,*



1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; 3Clinical Laboratory Science Department, College of Applied Medical Science, Shaqra University, AlQuwayiyah 11961, Saudi Arabia; 4Clinical Laboratory Science Department, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Najran University, Najran 61441, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Biology, Turabah University College, Taif University, P.O.BOX 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia; 7College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; 8Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow, India; *Corresponding author



Misbahuddin M Rafeeq - Email: marafeeq@kau.edu.sa

Alaa Hamed Habib - Email: ahabib@kau.edu.sa

Ahmad Alzamami - Email: aalzamami@su.edu.sa

Norah A Alturki - Email: noalturki@ksu.edu.sa

Mutaib M Mashraqi - Email: mmmashraqi@nu.edu.sa

Youssef Saeed Alghamdi - Email: ysghamdi@tu.edu.sa

Saleh Alshamrani - Email: saalshamrani@nu.edu.sa

Afaf Awwadh Alharthi - Email: a.awwadh@tu.edu.sa
Suhail Ahmad - Email: ssbiotechnologist@gmail.com & suhailamd@iul.ac.in


Article Type

Research Article



Received April 2, 2022; Revised May 31, 2022; Accepted May 31, 2022, Published May 31, 2022



It is well-acknowledged that ‘combination therapy’ of antibiotics is indispensable for the treatment of patients suffering from serious bacterial infections. Therefore, it is of interest to collect data from the in vitro tests using ‘rifampicin-cefotaxime’ and ‘rifampicin-tetracycline’ combination regimens against multi drug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains of nosocomial source in order to determine the effectiveness of the combination therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for cefotaxime, tetracycline and rifampicin antibiotics were found to be comparatively high for each of the antibiotics when given individually. However, carefully prepared combination-regimens exhibited significant inhibitory effect on the same bacterial isolates. DNA fragmentation study confirmed that ‘rifampicin-cefotaxime’ and ‘rifampicin-tetracycline’ combination-regimens could cause breakage of the bacterial DNA. Thus, we show that combination-regimens namely, ‘rifampicin-cefotaxime’ and ‘rifampicin-tetracycline’ were found to be capable of maintaining rifampicin susceptibility in the E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. However, this susceptibility was not maintained by only rifampicin. More data using animal model experiments are needed for confirming and deriving translational benefits from these findings in future.



Antibiotic combinations; Cefotaxime; DNA fragmentation assay; Escherichia coli



Rafeeq et al. Bioinformation 18(5): 482-487 (2022)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.