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Bioinformation and Neutrino Communication


Paul Shapshak



Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Tampa General Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33606, USA, *Corresponding author



Paul Shapshak - Email - pshapshak@gmail.com


Article Type




Received May 2, 2022; Revised June 30, 2022; Accepted June 30, 2022, Published June 30, 2022



Communications among civilizations may include self-descriptive bioinformation because pathogen dynamics exist in their astrobiology and astrovirology, which could become pathogenic upon actual contact. This information is of mutual benefit, if reciprocated. However, in contrast, the strategic counter-scenario of self-hidden civilizations is also discussed. Civilizations, including extra-terrestrial civilizations have been divided and stratified into three levels, using a wide non-linear logarithmic scale. The levels are based on their energy expenditures: level 1 is at 4x10^19 erg/sec; level 2 is at 4x10^33 erg/sec; and level 3 is at 4x10^44 erg/sec. Terrestrial civilization is currently below the entry level I. Particularly advanced civilizations, which are above the highest level, may engineer interstellar travel and could move their planets across interstellar distances. Communication among civilizations has always been of keen interest. In terms of ability to communicate among advanced civilizations, neutrinos may be used for galactic and inter-galactic communication, in addition to or instead of using electromagnetic radiation. Thus, at this juncture, deliberation and debate are essential to proceed with development of civilization and communication.



Neutrino, communication, signal, detection, transmission, electromagnetism (EM), galaxy, bioinformation, life, astrobiology, astro-virology, extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI), Kardashev-Dyson-Sagan (KDS), stratification, Dyson sphere, Drake-Sagan equation, star, planet, supernova, quasar, blazar, neutron star, pulsar, black hole, Standard Model, fermion, weak interaction, W+/W-/Zo bosons



Shapshak, Bioinformation 18(6): 496-500 (2022)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.