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Isolation and drug susceptibility pattern of uropathogens in Saudi diabetic and non-diabetic patients with urinary tract infection



Ziaullah Mirza Sain1, Misbahuddin Rafeeq2,*, Hussam Aly Sayed Murad2, 3 & Muhammad Barkaat Hussain1



1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh campus, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, 21589; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh campus, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, 21589; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; *Corresponding author



Misbahuddin Rafeeq - E-mail: misbahuudinrafeeq@yahoo.com & marafeeq@kau.edu.sa


Article Type

Research Article



Received July 2, 2022; Revised August 31, 2022; Accepted August 31, 2022, Published August 31, 2022



Urinary tract infection (UTI), contribute substantially to healthcare burden. Diabetes predispose to UTI with high glycosuria being fertile medium for bacterial growth. With changing bacterial drug resistance patterns; the problem needs to be studied periodically to ensure a rational therapy, minimize adverse effects, and cost. Therefore, it is of interest to compare the profile and susceptibility pattern of uropathogens isolated from diabetic and non-diabetic patients with UTI. Mid-stream urine samples of 1100 patients (diabetic and non-diabetic), presenting with UTI symptoms were aseptically collected and inoculated into CLED medium. Colony counts of 105cfu/ml or 104cfu/ml and >5 pus cells per high power microscopic field were regarded as significant bacteriuria. Colonies from CLED were sub-cultured onto sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar. Bacterial identification was performed on the basis of colony morphology, gram staining, and series of biochemical tests though Analytical Profile Index (API) test strips. Drug susceptibility was done by standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Data was analyzed by SPSS ver. 25.Clinically significant bacteriuria was 32.8% and 19.2% in diabetics and non-diabetics respectively. The frequency of male and female patients was 153 and 208 in diabetic group; and 69 and 142 respectively in non-diabetic group. Diabetics were twice at risk of UTI; [Odds ratio; 2.04 (CI: 1.68-2.48, p<0.05)]. .Escherichia coli and klebsiella were most common gram-negative, while Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were most common gram-positive bacteria in both the groups. Most effective antibiotics against gram-negative bacteria were carbapenems, amikacin, colistin, and piperacillin/tazobactam; while ampicillin/amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones and cephalexin were least effective. For gram-positives, vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline were most effective. No significant difference in bacterial profile and susceptibility pattern was found between diabetics and non-diabetics. However, diabetics were twice at risk of UTI compared to non-diabetics.



Urinary tract infection; Uropathogens; Antibacterial resistance; Antibiotics; Diabetic patients



Sain et al. Bioinformation 18(8): 710-717 (2022)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.