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Phenotype, allele and genotype frequency distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood group among blood donors attending regional blood transfusion centre in Delhi, India



Sanjay Kumar Thakur1, 2, Sompal Singh2, Dinesh Kumar Negi2 & Anil Kumar Sinha1, *



1P.G. Department of Zoology, Veer Kunwar Singh University, Ara, Bihar 802301, India; 2Department of Regional Blood Transfusion Centre and Pathology, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College and hospital, Delhi 110007, India; *Corresponding author



Sanjay Kumar Thakur -E-mail: sanjaykumarthakur80@gmail.com

Sompal Singh -E- mail: sompal151074@gmail.com

Dinesh Kumar Negi - E-mail: dineshnegi2008@gmail.com


Article Type

Research Article



Received April 1, 2023; Revised April 30, 2023; Accepted April 30, 2023, Published April 30, 2023



The ABO and Rh blood group phenotypes, alleles, and genotype frequencies have many biological and medical implications. The frequency differs broadly according to races, geographical borders and ethnicity, even within the same region. This study was designed to determine the frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors attending the regional blood transfusion centre in Delhi. The gel card method was used to determine the ABO and Rh(D) blood groups of donors who donated blood between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2022. The assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was used to determine allele and genotype frequencies of blood donors. A total of 16,925 blood units were donated during the study period. Donors phenotype frequencies of ABO were as follows: ‘A’ (23.88%), ‘B’ (37.38%), ‘AB’ (9.97%) and ‘O ’(29.27%). Rh(D)+Ve (D) were (94.9%) and Rh(D)-Ve (d) were (5.01%), which follow an order of B > O > A > AB and Rh-D > d for Rh. Donors ABO and Rh (D) allele frequencies were IA-0.183, IB-0.277, IO-0.541 and ID-0.776, Id-0.224 respectively. Allele frequencies follow an order of IO > IB > IA and Rh- ID > Id. Donors ABO genotype frequencies were AA-0.0333, AO-0.198, BB-0.0768, BO-0.30, AB-0.101, OO-0.293 and Rh(D) genotype frequencies were DD-0.602, Dd-0.347, dd-0.0501. Genotype frequencies follow an order of BO > OO > AO > AB > BB > AA and DD > Dd > dd. Among our donors, which were mostly from northern India, the ABO and Rh(D) blood groups have the highest proportion of ABO-B and Rh(D)+Ve and the lowest proportion of ABO-AB and Rh(D)-Ve, with a stable order of B > O > A > AB and D > d for phenotype, IO > IB > IA and ID > Id for allele and BO > OO > AO > AB > BB > AA and DD > Dd > dd for genotype.



Blood group, Phenotype, Genotype, Allele, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumptions.



Thakur et al. Bioinformation 19(4): 385-391 (2023)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.