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Title

Potential biomarkers in Japanese encephalitis from different hosts and geographical locations

 

Authors

Ziaullah M Sain1, Mohammad Azhar Kamal2, Mohiuddin Khan Warsi3,4, Saad Alghamdi5, Mohammed Yahya Al Qahtani6, Ahmed Muhammed Al Rumaihi7, Asif Hussain Akber8, Mohammed Ali Al Qahtani9 & Misbahuddin M Rafeeq10*

 

Affiliation

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah KSA 21589; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 23890, Saudi Arabia; 4University of Jeddah Centre for Scientific and Medical Research (UJ-CSMR), University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;  5Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 6Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank Department - Virology Division, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 12233, Saudi Arabia; 7Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank Department - Virology Division, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 12233, Saudi Arabia; 8Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank Department - Virology Division, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 12233, Saudi Arabia; 9Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank Department - Microbiology Division, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 12233, Saudi Arabia; 10Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, 21589, KSA; *Corresponding author

 

Email

Ziaullah M Sain E-mail: zsain@kau.edu.sa

Mohammad Azhar Kamal E-mail: ma.kamal@psau.edu.sa

Mohiuddin Khan Warsi E-mail: warsi.micro@gmail.com

Saad Alghamdi E-mail: ssalghamdi@uqu.edu.sa

Mohammed Yahya Al Qahtani; E-mail - lexus44131@hotmail.com

Ahmed Muhammed Al Rumaihi E-mail: rumaihi.ahmad@gmail.com

Asif Hussain Akber E-mail: asif20000@gmail.com

Mohammed Ali Al Qahtani E-mail: mdq.cls@gmail.com

Misbahuddin M Rafeeq E-mail: misbahuddinrafeeq@yahoo.com; marafeeq@kau.edu.sa

 

Article Type

Research Article

 

Date

Received May 1, 2023; Revised May 31, 2023; Accepted May 31, 2023, Published May 31, 2023

 

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a single-stranded, mosquito-borne, positive-sense RNA flavivirus that causes one of the most severe encephalitides. There are treatments available for those who contact this illness; however, there are no known cures. This disease has a 30% fatality rate, and of the people who survive, 3050% develops neurologic and psychiatric sequelae. The JE virus genome size is 10.98 kb and contains two coding DNA sequences (CDS), two genes, and 15 mature peptides; the CDS polyprotein is 10.3 kb. In this study, we used 29 genomics sequences of the JE virus reported from different countries and infecting different animals and analysed vast dimensions of the genomic annotation of JE comparatively to understand its evolutionary aspects. The extensive SNPs analysis revealed that KF907505.1, reported from Taiwan, has only three SNPs, similar to sequences reported from India. Repeat and polymorphism analyses revealed that the genome tends to be similar in most JE sequences.

 

Keywords

Japanese encephalitis virus; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs); transcription factors; phobos; phylogenomics

 

Citation

Sain et al. Bioinformation 19(5): 611-622 (2023)

 

Edited by

P Kangueane

 

ISSN

0973-2063

 

Publisher

Biomedical Informatics

 

License

This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.