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Green tea extract and hydroxyl-chloroquine combination enhances apoptosis in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells



K Tanmayi Atchuta Sri Lakshmi1, Rahul Chidurala1, Parepalli Suresh2* & VP Karthik2



1SRMC & RI, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research-DU, Porur, Chennai-600116, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Department of Pharmacology, SRMC & RI, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research-DU, Porur, Chennai-600116, Tamil Nadu, India; *Corresponding author



KTAS Lakshmi: 0009-0005-8537-3774, E-mail: tanmayisri01@gmail.com

C Rahul: 0009-0001-6982-8717, E-mail: ch.rahul03@gmail.com

P Suresh: 0000-0001-9288-7670, E-mail: parepallisuresh@sriramachandra.edu.in

VP Karthik: E-mail: dr_karthikvp@yahoo.co.in


Article Type

Research Article



Received August 1, 2023; Revised August 31, 2023; Accepted August 31, 2023, Published August 31, 2023



Polyphenols, including catechins from green tea extract, have long been known for their potential anti-tumour activities. However, the precise mechanisms underlying their actions remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of green tea extract on A549 cells, a type of non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells treated with green tea extract (GTE) were examined using an inverted light microscope and a fluorescence microscope. Cell sensitivity was evaluated using the MTT assay, while cell death was assessed using the Tali image-based cytometer. Ultra structural changes were observed using a transmission electron microscope. The findings suggested that even at the highest dose tested (150 μM), GTE did not exhibit toxic effects on A549 cells. Likewise, treatment with GTE resulted in a minimal, dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, the analysis of cell structures using light and electron microscopy revealed an enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE. Moreover, under the fluorescence microscope, an increase in acidic vesicular organelles and the formation of LC3-II puncta were observed following GTE treatment. Assessment of autophagy function indicated that GTE-induced autophagy may serve as a self-protective mechanism against cytotoxicity, as blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced cell viability and enhanced necrotic cell death in response to GTE treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of green tea extract, likely due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These findings suggest that the potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than as a standalone therapy.



Green Tea, MTT Assay, non-small lung cancer cell, nslcc a549 cells, fluorescence, cytotoxicity



Sri Lakshmi et al. Bioinformation 19(8): 860-865 (2023)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.