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Epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in an ambulatory setting: a cross sectional study during the massive SARS-CoV-2 wave in India



Sushil Sharma1, Rakesh Upparakadiyala2, Santenna Chenchula*1, Madhavrao Chavan1, Gaurav Rangari1 & Arup Kumar Misra1



1Department of   Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, India; 2Department of General Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, India  522503,*Corresponding author



Sushil Sharma-Email ID: drsushil.pharma@aiimsmangalagiri.edu.in

Rakesh Upparakadiyala-Email ID: ukrakesh@aiimsmangalagiri.edu.in

Santenna Chenchula-Email ID: csanten7@gmail.com

Madhavrao Chavan-Email ID: madhavrao.pharm@aiimsmangalagiri.edu.in

Gaurav Rangari,-Email ID: gaurav83@aiimsmangalagiri.edu.in

Arup Kumar Misra-Email ID: arup.pharma@aiimsmangalagiri.edu.in

Santenna Chenchula-Email ID: csanten7@gmail.com


Article Type

Research Article



Received September 1, 2023; Revised September 30, 2023; Accepted September 30, 2023, Published September 30, 2023



The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has profoundly affected developing countries like India. This retrospective cross-sectional analysis investigated epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes for hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the Massive SARS-CoV-2 Wave in India. Among 233 patients, the median age was 47.33 years, mostly male. Hospital stays averaged 8.4 days. Common symptoms include fever (88.41%), dry cough (56.2%), myalgia (44.20%), and shortness of breath (22.8%). The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (52%) and hypertension (47.2%). Elevated biomarkers include D-dimer (24.4%), CRP (32.1%), ferritin (26.60%), and others. Prescription analysis revealed that antibiotics (42.6%), Antivirals (37%), anthelmintics (20.30%), vitamins and nutritional supplements (20.71%) and glucocorticoids (12.8%) were the most commonly prescribed. Oxygen therapy was needed by 19.31% of patients in the moderate and severe categories within 24 hours of admission. The mortality rate was 8.58%. The surge led to increased hospitalizations and mortality, particularly among young adults. Diabetes and hypertension were correlated with mortality. Irregular use of drugs lacking evidence, like antibiotics and anthelmintics, vitamins and nutritional supplements, was observed in COVID-19 management. This study underscores the impact of the pandemic in India and highlights the need for evidence-based treatments.



COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, clinical characteristics, hospitalization, medical comorbidities, mortality



Sharma et al. Bioinformation 19(9): 939-945 (2023)

Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.