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Fluoride exposure among children with different blood groups at Kolar district, Karnataka,India



Kurpad Nagaraj Shashidhar*, Anantharamaiah Hemalatha, Uppalamethi Munilakshmi, Paramaturi Sharon Rose & Muthyala Meghanath *



Department of Biochemistry, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka, India; *Corresponding author



KN Shashidhar - E-mail: drshashikn1971@yahoo.co.in; Phone: +91- 9845248742

A Hemalatha - E-mail: drhemashashi@gmail.com; Phone: +91- 9972212324

U Munilakshmi - E-mail: lakshmisundharsj@gmail.com;; Phone: +91- 8748815373

P Sharon Rose - E-mail: sharonhoney06@gmail.com; Phone: +91- 9182512774

Muthyala Meghanath - E-mail: gh.meghanath777@gmail.com; Phone: +91 - 9063742741


Article Type

Research Article



Received March 1, 2024; Revised March 31, 2024; Accepted March 31, 2024, Published March 31, 2024



Fluoride is present naturally in water at < 1.5 ppm and it is considered to be essential for dental and bone enamel mineralization forming fluorapatite. Chronic exposure (> 2ppm) is considered to be toxic and it leads to fluorosis. Fluoride in minor quantities is excreted through sweat, saliva and feaces. Kidneys are the major route of excretion of fluoride and are thus it is the primary organ to be affected. Therefore, it is of interest to assess urinary fluoride among school children with different blood groups at Kolar district, Karnataka, India. Study was conducted in 155 subjects, aged 16-17 years. Data shows that blood group B has high risk of effecting by fluorosis (mean value of urine fluoride = 1.11). However, subjects with negative blood groups are least affected by fluorosis (mean value of urine fluoride =0.30). However, a larger population study is required for validation.



Fluoride exposure, children, blood groups, Kolar district, Karnataka



Shashidhar et al. Bioinformation 20(3): 234-237 (2024)


Edited by

Peter N Pushparaj






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.