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Neutrinos to Astrovirology: Signatures



Paul Shapshak*, 1, Milad Zandi2, Charurut Somboonwit1 & John T. Sinnott1



1Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33606, USA; 2Hepatitis Research Center, Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran



Paul Shapshak - E-mail: pshapshak@gmail.com


Article Type




Received January 1, 2024; Revised January 31, 2024; Accepted January 31, 2024, Published January 31, 2024



In the 20th century, the concept of terrestrial life’s unity was solidified, and the 21st century saw the emergence and establishment of astrovirology. To date, life originating beyond Earth has not been identified. The singular instance where NASA investigated potential microfossils in Martian ejecta found on Earth has since been refuted. This report suggests that a more comprehensive discussion and analysis of life's biosignatures and communication methods are essential. Such approaches are crucial not only to avoid overlooking the possible existence of extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) but also to prevent potential human infections that could arise from extra-terrestrial contact. In addition terrestrial infections by microorganism that originally derived from Earth and were returned, require investigation due to potential mutations and subsequent increased pathogenicity.



Biosignatures, biodefense, exoplanets, astrobiology, astrovirology, terrestrial, unity life, molecular biology, biochemistry, communication, Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (ETI), neutrino, electromagnetic radiation, Sagan-Kardashev, Dyson, goldilocks, entropy, space exploration, contamination from Earth, extra-terrestrial biosafety zone, NIH, CDC, WHO.



Shapshak et al. Bioinformation 20(1): 18-19 (2024)


Edited by

P Kangueane






Biomedical Informatics



This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. This is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.